When we implement a system in the industry, there are some additional considerations, compared to in-lab research design. It is important to keep these considerations in mind when we want to transfer academic work into the industry.

There are many studies on evaluating a system, I summarize some aspects based on my experience in the industry.

Two related industrial systems can be found in aBeacon and VALID.

System and Hardware

Cost (Return of Investment, ROI)




What happens if the some function of the system fails?

It is better to conduct a quantitative evaluation (theoretically or experimentally) and give an upper bound of the impact.

Energy Consumption


Due to device heterogeneity


As we observed in the physical beacon system, the lifetime of a device or even the whole system is not solely decided by the battery.


(What are the relations between these factors?)



Privacy is a big topic and we may need an individual article for it.

Ground Truth and Label Collection

Ground truth is essential when we want to evaluate the performance of a new algorithm, strategy or a system, however, ground truth is difficult (if not impossible) to collect.

The same paradox also works when we want to collect theb label data for a machine learning algorithm. If the label is easy to collect, there is no need to build the learning algorithm.

Data Redundancy and Data Missing

Restrictions on iOS and Android

Wi-Fi scanning

BLE broadcast and scan

Android Service

APP execution in the background


A/B Test