In this survey, we only focus on indoor/outdoor detection.

Key Words

  • IODetector, Indoor / Outdoor


  • Sensors: Light, Cellular, Magnetic, Acceleration, Proximity, Sound, Wi-Fi
  • Solution: Threshold, ML, Active Probe, GPS-aided


Individual Paper

  • IODetector, SenSys12
    • Taxonomy: Accelerometer, Cell RSS, Light, Magnetic
    • Light, cell RSS and magnetic field have different distributions indoor and outdoor.
  • CoTrain: A Semi-Supervised Learning Approach for Robust Indoor-Outdoor Detection, SenSys14
    • Taxonomy: Accelerometer, Cell RSS, Light, Magnetic
    • Semi-Supervised Learning let the IODetector adapts to new environment quickly.
  • Sound based indoor and outdoor environment detection, ICT15
    • Taxonomy: Sound, Active Probe
    • Works like radar, generate signal and got feedback from environment of different reverberation.
  • Bluedetect, Sensors16
    • Taxonomy: iBeacon, GPS-aided
    • iBeacon hardware placed at landmark as boundary, GPS signal works as trigger in semi-outdoor.
  • Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor, Sensors16
    • Taxonomy: Cellular RSSI, ML
  • Detecting Indoor / Outdoor Places Using WiFi, IEEE-Sensors16
    • Taxonomy: Wi-Fi, ML
  • SenseIO, IEEE-Sensors18
    • Taxonomy: Accelerators, Wi-Fi, Light, Cellular,proximity, Threshold


[SenSys12-IODetector] Zhou, P., Zheng, Y., Li, Z., Li, M., & Shen, G. (2012, November). IODetector: A generic service for indoor outdoor detection. In SenSye (pp. 113-126). ACM.

[SenSys14-CoTrain] Radu, V., Katsikouli, P., Sarkar, R., & Marina, M. K. (2014, November). A semi-supervised learning approach for robust indoor-outdoor detection with smartphones. In SenSys(pp. 280-294). ACM

[ICT15] Sung, R., Jung, S. H., & Han, D. (2015). Sound based indoor and outdoor environment detection for seamless positioning handover. ICT Express, 1(3), 106-109.

[Sensors16-Bluedetect] Zou, H., Jiang, H., Luo, Y., Zhu, J., Lu, X., & Xie, L. (2016). Bluedetect: An ibeacon-enabled scheme for accurate and energy-efficient indoor-outdoor detection and seamless location-based service. Sensors, 16(2), 268.

[Sensors16-Phone] Wang, W., Chang, Q., Li, Q., Shi, Z., & Chen, W. (2016). Indoor-outdoor detection using a smart phone sensor. Sensors, 16(10), 1563.

[IEEE-Sensors16-WiFi] Canovas, O., Lopez-de-Teruel, P. E., & Ruiz, A. (2016). Detecting indoor/outdoor places using WiFi signals and AdaBoost. IEEE sensors journal, 17(5), 1443-1453.

[IEEE-Sensors18-SenseIO] Ali, M., ElBatt, T., & Youssef, M. (2018). SenseIO: Realistic ubiquitous indoor outdoor detection system using smartphones. IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(9), 3684-3693.