Keywords: infrastructure/anchor less/free.


  • Definition of infrastructure: No unfied definition is given. Generally, infrastructure requires additional hardware (BLE beacon) when provide position information.
  • Additional effort (Wi-Fi AP fingerprinting) may be needed.
  • It seems that many dead reckoning work (with some natural landmark) claims to be infrastructure less
  • Many infrastructure-less work focus on post-disaster rescue work.


  • Solution:
    • Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS)
    • Landmark (Light, Known GPS, Acoustic)
    • Dead reckoning
    • learning and sharing (d2d interaction),

Individual Papers

  • Anchor-Free Distributed Localization in Sensor Networks, SenSys-03
    • Solution: Similar as MDS, nodes communicate with neighbors to estimate relative position, then the whole network converges with absolute position
  • Cooperative Anchor-less Localization, ICUWB-08
    • Solution: Agents are deployed at known initial position, then cooperate to get each other’s position
    • Not traditional dead reckoning, more like multi-agent cooperation.
  • Towards Mobile Phone Localization without War-Driving, INFOCOM-10-CompAcc
    • Solution: GPS + Dead reckoning (Compass+Accelerometer)
    • Landmark: Initial GPS
  • Indoor Localization without Infrastructure, MobiSys-11
    • Solution: Acoustic fingerpriting
  • A Reliable and Accurate Indoor Localization, UbiComp-12
    • Solution: Dead reckoning (step detection + stride length estimation + heading inference)
  • Indoor Infrastructure-less Solution based on Sensor Augmented Smartphone, UPINLBS-12
    • Solution: Dead reckoning (walking speed from anemometer)
  • Finding lane positions of vehicles, IEEE-15
    • Solution: Vehicle with camera as landmark and data with other vehicle through V2V
    • Landmark: Vehicle with camera
  • Infrastructure-Less Indoor Localization Using Microphone, Magnetometer and Light Sensor,Sensors-15
    • Solution: Acoustic, magenetic, and light fingerprinting
    • Landmark: Acoustic, magenetic, and light
  • Infrastructure-less indoor localization using light fingerprints, ICASSP-17
    • Solution: Light fingerpriting
  • Infrastructure-less and calibration-free RFID-based localization, IEEE-16
    • Solution: RFID on victim + GPS from responders
    • Landmark: GPS from responders
  • Infrastructure independent indoor localization, MobiSys-16
    • Solution: Similar as IEEE-16, localize victim with known responder position


[SenSys-03] Priyantha, N. B., Balakrishnan, H., Demaine, E. D., & Teller, S. J. (2003, April). Anchor-free distributed localization in sensor networks. In ACM SenSys (Vol. 3, pp. 340-341).

[ICUWB-08] Ferner, U., Wymeersch, H., & Win, M. Z. (2008, September). Cooperative anchor-less localization for large dynamic networks. In 2008 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (Vol. 2, pp. 181-185). IEEE.

[INFOCOM-10-CompAcc] Constandache, I., Choudhury, R. R., & Rhee, I. (2010, March). Towards mobile phone localization without war-driving. In 2010 IEEE INFOCOM (pp. 1-9). IEEE.

[MobiSys-11] Tarzia, S. P., Dinda, P. A., Dick, R. P., & Memik, G. (2011, June). Indoor localization without infrastructure using the acoustic background spectrum. In ACM MobiSys (pp. 155-168). ACM.

[UbiComp-12] Li, F., Zhao, C., Ding, G., Gong, J., Liu, C., & Zhao, F. (2012, September). A reliable and accurate indoor localization method using phone inertial sensors. In ACM UbiComp (pp. 421-430). ACM.

[UPINLBS-12] Trehard, G., Lamy-Perbal, S., & Boukallel, M. (2012, October). Indoor infrastructure-less solution based on sensor augmented smartphone for pedestrian localisation. In 2012 IEEE UPINLBS (pp. 1-7). IEEE.

[IEEE-15] Chen, L. W., Shih, H. W., Tsai, M. F., & Deng, D. J. (2015). Finding lane positions of vehicles: Infrastructure-less cooperative lane positioning based on vehicular sensor networks. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 10(4), 70-80.

[Sensors-15] Galván-Tejada, C., García-Vázquez, J., Galván-Tejada, J., Delgado-Contreras, J., & Brena, R. (2015). Infrastructure-less indoor localization using the microphone, magnetometer and light sensor of a smartphone. Sensors, 15(8), 20355-20372.

[MobiSys-16] Khan, T. A., Chakraborty, T., & Islam, A. B. M. (2016, June). Poster: Infrastructure independent indoor localization for post-disaster rescue mission. In ACM MobiSys (pp. 42-42). ACM.

[IEEE-16] Yang, Z., & Ganz, A. (2016, May). Infrastructure-less and calibration-free RFID-based localization algorithm for victim tracking in mass casualty incidents. In 2016 IEEE Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

[ICASSP-17] Hamidi-Rad, S., Lyons, K., & Goela, N. (2017, March). Infrastructure-less indoor localization using light fingerprints. In 2017 IEEE ICASSP (pp. 5995-5999). IEEE.

[CSUR-19] Winter, S., Tomko, M., Vasardani, M., Richter, K. F., Khoshelham, K., & Kalantari, M. (2019). Infrastructure-Independent Indoor Localization and Navigation. ACM CSUR, 52(3), 61.